1 the fundamental assumptions from which something is begun or developed or calculated or explained; "the whole argument rested on a basis of conjecture" [syn: basis, base, foundation, fundament, groundwork]
2 a stone in the exterior of a large and important building; usually carved with a date and laid with appropriate ceremonies
3 a stone at the outer corner of two intersecting masonry walls
- A ceremonial stone set at the corner of a building, joining two
exterior walls, and often inscribed with the starting and
completion dates of construction, the name of the architect and
owner, and other details.
- The cornerstone on the Flatiron Building is set on the Fifth Avenue facade.
- By extension, that which is prominent, fundamental, noteworthy, or central.
- Exceptional service is the cornerstone of the hospitality industry.
that which is prominent, fundamental, noteworthy, or central
A cornerstone (or foundation stone) is a ceremonial masonry stone, or replica, set in a prominent location on the outside of a building, with an inscription on the stone indicating the construction dates of the building and the names of architect, builder and other significant individuals. The rite of laying a cornerstone is an important cultural component of western architecture and metaphorically in sacred architecture generally.
Some cornerstones include time capsules from the time a particular building was built. The origins of this tradition are vague but its presence in Judeo-Christian countries can be associated with one quotation from the Old Testament (Bible verse |Psalm|118:22|HE) cited six times in the New Testament (Bible verse |Matthew|21:42|KJV,Bible verse |Mark|12:10|KJV, Bible verse |Luke|20:17|KJV, Bible verse |Acts|4:11|KJV, Bible verse |Ephesians|2:20|KJV and Bible verse 1|Peter|2:7|KJV).
The cornerstone concept is derived from the first stone set in the construction of a masonry foundation, important since all other stones will be set in reference to this stone, thus determining the position of the entire edifice.
HistoryIn ancient buildings, the foundation stone was placed at the north-east corner of the structure. This was thought to be an auspicious position.
Often, the ceremony involved the placing of offerings of grain, wine and oil on or under the stone. These were symbolic of the produce and the people of the land and the means of their subsistence. This in turn derived from the practice in still more ancient times of making an animal or human sacrifice that was laid in the foundations.
Frazer (2006: p.106-107) in The Golden Bough charts the various propitiary sacrifices and effigy substitution such as the shadow, states that:
Nowhere, perhaps, does the equivalence of the shadow to the life or soul come out more clearly than in some customs practised to this day in South-eastern Europe. In modern Greece, when the foundation of a new building is being laid, it is the custom to kill a cock, a ram, or a lamb, and to let its blood flow on the foundation-stone, under which the animal is afterwards buried. The object of the sacrifice is to give strength and stability to the building. But sometimes, instead of killing an animal, the builder entices a man to the foundation-stone, secretly measures his body, or a part of it, or his shadow, and buries the measure under the foundation-stone; or he lays the foundation-stone upon the man's shadow. It is believed that the man will die within the year. The Roumanians of Transylvania think that he whose shadow is thus immured will die within forty days; so persons passing by a building which is in course of erection may hear a warning cry, Beware lest they take thy shadow! Not long ago there were still shadow-traders whose business it was to provide architects with the shadows necessary for securing their walls. In these cases the measure of the shadow is looked on as equivalent to the shadow itself, and to bury it is to bury the life or soul of the man, who, deprived of it, must die. Thus the custom is a substitute for the old practice of immuring a living person in the walls, or crushing him under the foundation-stone of a new building, in order to give strength and durability to the structure, or more definitely in order that the angry ghost may haunt the place and guard it against the intrusion of enemies.
Modern PracticesIn modern practice, normally, a VIP of the organization, or a local celebrity or community leader, will be invited to conduct the ceremony of figuratively beginning the foundations of the building, with the person's name and official position and the date usually being recorded on the stone. This person is usually asked to place their hand on the stone or otherwise signify its laying.
Often still, and certainly until the 1970s, most ceremonies involved the use of a specially manufactured and engraved trowel that had a formal use in laying mortar under the stone. Similarly, a special hammer was often used to ceremonially tap the stone into place.
The foundation stone often has a cavity into which is placed a time capsule containing newspapers of the day or week of the ceremony plus other artifacts that are typical of the period of the construction: Coins of the year may also be immured in the cavity or time capsule.
FreemasonryIn Freemasonry, which grew from the practice of stonemasons, the initiate (Entered Apprentice) is placed in the north-east corner of the Lodge as a figurative foundation stone.
The establishment of a new Masonic building is accompanied by a ceremony that perpetuates the formal ceremonies described above.
A cornerstone (Greek: Άκρογωνιεîς, Latin: Primarii Lapidis) will sometimes be referred to as a "foundation-stone", and is symbolic of Christ, whom the Apostle Paul referred to as the "head of the corner" and is the "Chief Cornerstone of the Church" (Bible verse |Ephesians|2:20|KJV). Many of the more ancient churches will place relics of the saints, especially martyrs, in the foundation stone.
Western ChurchesAccording to the pre-Vatican II rite of the Roman Catholic Church: Before the construction of a new church begins, the foundations of the building are clearly marked out and a wooden cross is set up to indicate where the altar will stand. Once preparations have been made, the bishop—or a priest delegated by him for that purpose—will bless holy water and with it sprinkle first the cross that was erected and then the foundation stone itself. Upon the stone he is directed to engrave crosses on each side with a knife, and then pronounce the following prayer: "Bless, O Lord, this creature of stone (creaturam istam lapidis) and grant by the invocation of Thy holy name that all who with a pure mind shall lend aid to the building of this church may obtain soundness of body and the healing of their souls. Through Christ Our Lord, Amen."
After this, the Litany of the Saints is said, followed by an antiphon and Bible verse |Psalm|127|KJV (Psalm 126 in the Septuagint), which appropriately begins with the verse, "Except the Lord build the house, in vain do they labour that build it". Then the stone is lowered into its place with another prayer and again sprinkled with holy water. More antiphons and psalms follow, while the bishop sprinkles the foundations, dividing them into three sections and ending each with a special prayer. Finally, Veni Creator Spiritus is sung, and two short prayers. Then the bishop, if he deems it opportune, sits down and exhorts the people to contribute to the construction, appointments and maintenance of the new church, after which he dismisses them with his blessing and the proclamation of an indulgence.
OtherA cornerstone is also a concept which provides the basic tools for understanding or manipulating a larger intellectual edifice.
- Topping out
- Builders' rites
- Golden spike
- Dome of the Rock Foundation Stone
cornerstone in German: Grundsteinlegung
cornerstone in French: Première pierre
cornerstone in Hebrew: אבן פינה
cornerstone in Dutch: Hoeksteen
cornerstone in Japanese: 礎石
cornerstone in Polish: Akt erekcyjny
cornerstone in Swedish: Hörnsten
cornerstone in Chinese: 奠基石
bench mark, cardinal point, chief thing, climax, core, crisis, critical point, crux, essence, essential, essential matter, first stone, footstone, foundation stone, fundamental, gist, gravamen, great point, headstone, heart, high point, important thing, issue, kernel, keystone, landmark, main point, main thing, material point, meat, milestone, nub, pith, pivot, quoin, real issue, salient point, sine qua non, substance, substantive point, the bottom line, the point, turning point